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Learn Sybase ASE Fast and Easy with The Complete Sybase ASE Quick Reference Guide: A Practical Handbook for ASE Versions 12.0, 12.5.4, and 15.0.1



The Complete Sybase ASE Quick Reference Guide




If you are looking for a reliable, scalable, and high-performance relational database management system (RDBMS), you might want to consider Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE). Sybase ASE is a popular choice for many enterprise applications, such as banking, e-commerce, telecommunications, and healthcare. In this article, we will provide you with a complete quick reference guide on how to use Sybase ASE, from installation to backup and restore. Whether you are a beginner or an expert, you will find this guide useful and handy.




The Complete Sybase ASE Quick Reference Guide


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Introduction




In this section, we will introduce you to the basics of Sybase ASE, such as what it is, why you should use it, and how to install it.


What is Sybase ASE?




Sybase ASE is a RDBMS that was developed by Sybase Inc. in 1987. It is now owned by SAP, which acquired Sybase in 2010. Sybase ASE is designed to handle large volumes of data and transactions with high availability and security. It supports various operating systems, such as Windows, Linux, Unix, and Mac OS. It also supports various programming languages, such as SQL, Java, C#, Python, and PHP.


Why use Sybase ASE?




There are many reasons why you might want to use Sybase ASE for your database needs. Here are some of the benefits of using Sybase ASE:



  • It offers high performance and scalability. You can easily scale up or down your database resources according to your workload and demand. You can also take advantage of parallel processing and partitioning features to improve your query speed and efficiency.



  • It provides high availability and reliability. You can ensure that your database is always online and accessible by using features such as replication, clustering, mirroring, and failover. You can also recover your data quickly and easily by using features such as point-in-time recovery, log shipping, and dump and load.



  • It ensures high security and compliance. You can protect your data from unauthorized access and manipulation by using features such as encryption, auditing, authentication, authorization, and role-based access control. You can also comply with various regulations and standards by using features such as data masking, data archiving, and data retention.



  • It supports various data types and formats. You can store and manipulate various kinds of data in Sybase ASE, such as text, binary, spatial, temporal, XML, JSON, and LOB. You can also use features such as user-defined data types, user-defined functions, and user-defined aggregates to extend the functionality of your database.



  • It has a rich set of tools and utilities. You can manage and monitor your database easily by using tools such as Sybase Central, SQL Advantage, DBArtisan, PowerDesigner, and SAP Control Center. You can also perform various tasks such as backup and restore, migration, tuning, debugging, testing, and reporting by using utilities such as bcp (bulk copy), isql (interactive SQL), dbcc (database consistency checker), sp_help (stored procedure help), optdiag (optimizer diagnostics), dbisql (database interactive SQL), sybping (Sybase ping), and sybdiag (Sybase diagnostics).



How to install Sybase ASE?




To install Sybase ASE, you need to follow these steps:



  • Download the installation package from the SAP website. You can choose the version and platform that suits your needs. You can also download a free trial version or a developer edition for testing purposes.



  • Extract the installation package to a temporary directory. You will see a setup.exe file and a setup folder.



  • Run the setup.exe file as an administrator. You will see a welcome screen and a license agreement. Accept the license agreement and click Next.



  • Choose the installation type. You can choose between Typical, Custom, or Upgrade. Typical will install the default components and settings. Custom will allow you to select the components and settings that you want. Upgrade will upgrade your existing Sybase ASE installation to a newer version.



  • Choose the installation directory. You can specify the location where you want to install Sybase ASE. The default location is C:\Sybase\ASE-16_0.



  • Choose the server name and port number. You can specify the name and port number of your Sybase ASE server. The default name is SYBASE and the default port number is 5000.



  • Choose the character set and sort order. You can specify the character set and sort order of your Sybase ASE server. The character set determines how your data is stored and displayed. The sort order determines how your data is sorted and compared. The default character set is iso_1 (ISO 8859-1) and the default sort order is binary.



  • Choose the authentication mode. You can specify how your users will authenticate to your Sybase ASE server. You can choose between Standard or Integrated. Standard will use Sybase ASE's own authentication mechanism, which requires users to provide a username and password. Integrated will use Windows authentication, which allows users to log in with their Windows credentials.



  • Choose the initial configuration parameters. You can specify some of the initial configuration parameters of your Sybase ASE server, such as memory allocation, number of user connections, number of devices, device size, master device location, tempdb device location, and system database locations. You can accept the default values or change them according to your needs.



  • Review the summary of your installation choices and click Install. The installation process will begin and you will see a progress bar.



  • When the installation is complete, click Finish. You can optionally register your product online or view the installation log.



Congratulations! You have successfully installed Sybase ASE on your computer.


Basic Commands and Syntax




In this section, we will show you some of the basic commands and syntax that you need to know to use Sybase ASE. We will cover how to connect to Sybase ASE, how to create and drop databases, how to create and drop tables, how to insert, update, and delete data, and how to query data with SELECT statement.


How to connect to Sybase ASE?




To connect to Sybase ASE, you need to use a client tool or application that supports Sybase ASE's protocol (TDS). Some of the common client tools are SQL Advantage, DBArtisan, PowerBuilder, SQL Server Management Studio, ODBC, JDBC, ADO.NET, etc.


Depending on the client tool or application that you use, you may need to provide different information to connect to Sybase ASE, such as server name, port number, username, password, database name, etc.


For example, if you use SQL Advantage (a graphical query tool that comes with Sybase ASE), you can connect to Sybase ASE by following these steps:



  • Launch SQL Advantage from the Start menu or from the installation directory (C:\Sybase\ASE-16_0\bin\sqladv.exe).



  • In the Connect window, enter the server name (SYBASE), username (sa), password (leave blank), database name (master), and click OK.



  • You will see a Query window where you can type and execute SQL commands.



If you use isql (a command-line query tool that comes with Sybase ASE), you can connect to Sybase ASE by following these steps:



  • Open a command prompt window and navigate to the installation directory (C:\Sybase\ASE-16_0\bin).



  • Type isql -S SYBASE -U sa -P -D master and press Enter.



  • You will see a prompt (1>) where you can type and execute SQL commands.



How to create and drop databases?




To create a database in Sybase ASE, you need to use the CREATE DATABASE command. The syntax is:


CREATE DATABASE database_name ON device_name = size [LOG ON device_name = size] [FOR LOAD ] [WITH OVERRIDE] [WITH DURABILITY = NO RECOVERY ]


The parameters are:



  • database_name: The name of the database that you want to create.



  • device_name: The name of the device where you want to store the database.



  • size: The size of the database in megabytes.



  • LOG ON: Optional. Specifies a separate device for the transaction log of the database.



  • FOR LOAD: Optional. Specifies that the database is created for loading a dump file.



  • FOR PROXY_UPDATE: Optional. Specifies that the database is created for updating a proxy database.



  • FOR PROXY_DATABASE: Optional. Specifies that the database is created as a proxy database.



  • WITH OVERRIDE: Optional. Specifies that the existing database with the same name will be overwritten.



  • WITH DURABILITY: Optional. Specifies the durability level of the database, which affects how the database recovers from a failure.



For example, to create a database named testdb with a size of 100 MB on a device named testdev, you can use this command:


CREATE DATABASE testdb ON testdev = 100


To drop a database in Sybase ASE, you need to use the DROP DATABASE command. The syntax is:


DROP DATABASE database_name


The parameter is:



  • database_name: The name of the database that you want to drop.



For example, to drop a database named testdb, you can use this command:


DROP DATABASE testdb


How to create and drop tables?




To create a table in Sybase ASE, you need to use the CREATE TABLE command. The syntax is:


CREATE TABLE table_name ( column_name data_type [NULL NOT NULL] [DEFAULT default_value] [IDENTITY [seed, increment]] [CONSTRAINT constraint_name], ... ) [LOCK DATAROWS ] [ON segment_name]


The parameters are:



  • table_name: The name of the table that you want to create.



  • column_name: The name of the column that you want to create.



  • data_type: The data type of the column that you want to create.



  • NULL NOT NULL: Optional. Specifies whether the column can contain null values or not.



  • DEFAULT default_value: Optional. Specifies a default value for the column.



  • IDENTITY [seed, increment]: Optional. Specifies that the column is an identity column, which automatically generates sequential numeric values. You can optionally specify the starting value (seed) and the increment value (increment).



  • CONSTRAINT constraint_name: Optional. Specifies a constraint for the column, such as PRIMARY KEY, FOREIGN KEY, UNIQUE, CHECK, etc.



  • LOCK DATAROWS : Optional. Specifies the locking scheme for the table, which affects how concurrent users can access and modify data in the table.



  • ON segment_name: Optional. Specifies the segment where you want to store the table. A segment is a logical subdivision of a device that can be used to allocate space for different types of objects.



For example, to create a table named customers with four columns (id, name, email, and phone), you can use this command:


CREATE TABLE customers ( id INT NOT NULL IDENTITY PRIMARY KEY, name VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL, email VARCHAR(50) NULL, phone VARCHAR(20) NULL )


To drop a table in Sybase ASE, you need to use the DROP TABLE command. The syntax is:


DROP TABLE table_name


The parameter is:



  • table_name: The name of the table that you want to drop.



For example, to drop a table named customers, you can use this command:


DROP TABLE customers


How to insert, update, and delete data?




To insert data into a table in Sybase ASE, you need to use the INSERT command. The syntax is:


INSERT INTO table_name [(column_name, ...)] VALUES (value, ...)


The parameters are:



  • table_name: The name of the table that you want to insert data into.



  • column_name: Optional. The name of the column that you want to insert data into. If you omit this, you need to provide values for all columns in the table.



  • value: The value that you want to insert into the column.



For example, to insert a row into the customers table, you can use this command:


INSERT INTO customers (name, email, phone) VALUES ('John Smith', 'john.smith@example.com', '123-456-7890')


To update data in a table in Sybase ASE, you need to use the UPDATE command. The syntax is:


UPDATE table_name SET column_name = value, ... [WHERE condition]


The parameters are:



  • table_name: The name of the table that you want to update data in.



  • column_name: The name of the column that you want to update data in.



  • value: The new value that you want to assign to the column.



  • condition: Optional. Specifies a condition that determines which rows to update.



For example, to update the email and phone of a customer with id 1 in the customers table, you can use this command:


UPDATE customers SET email = 'john.smith@newmail.com', phone = '098-765-4321' WHERE id = 1


To delete data from a table in Sybase ASE, you need to use the DELETE command. The syntax is:


DELETE FROM table_name [WHERE condition]


The parameters are:



  • table_name: The name of the table that you want to delete data from.



  • condition: Optional. Specifies a condition that determines which rows to delete.



For example, to delete all rows from the customers table, you can use this command:


DELETE FROM customers


How to query data with SELECT statement?




To query data from a table or multiple tables in Sybase ASE, you need to use the SELECT statement. The syntax is:


SELECT [DISTINCT] column_name, ... FROM table_name [alias] [, ...] [WHERE condition] [GROUP BY column_name, ...] [HAVING condition] [ORDER BY column_name [ASC DESC], ...]


The parameters are:



  • DISTINCT: Optional. Specifies that only distinct (unique) values are returned.



  • column_name: The name of the column that you want to select. You can also use expressions, functions, or aliases.



  • table_name: The name of the table that you want to select from. You can also use aliases or subqueries.



  • alias: Optional. A short name that you can use to refer to a table or a column.



  • condition: Optional. Specifies a condition that filters the rows that are returned.



  • GROUP BY: Optional. Specifies how to group the rows that are returned by one or more columns.



  • HAVING: Optional. Specifies a condition that filters the groups that are returned.



  • ORDER BY: Optional. Specifies how to sort the rows that are returned by one or more columns.



  • ASC DESC: Optional. Specifies whether to sort the rows in ascending or descending order. The default is ascending.



For example, to select all columns and rows from the customers table, you can use this command:


SELECT * FROM customers


To select only the name and email columns from the customers table and order them by name in descending order, you can use this command:


SELECT name, email ORDER BY name DESC


To select the name and phone columns from the customers table and group them by phone and count the number of customers with the same phone number, you can use this command:


SELECT name, phone, COUNT(*) AS count FROM customers GROUP BY phone


To select the name and email columns from the customers table and filter them by a condition that the email contains the word 'example', you can use this command:


SELECT name, email FROM customers WHERE email LIKE '%example%'


To select data from multiple tables, you need to use a join. A join is a way of combining data from two or more tables based on a common column or condition. There are different types of joins, such as inner join, left outer join, right outer join, full outer join, and cross join.


For example, suppose you have another table named orders with four columns (id, customer_id, product_id, and quantity). To select the name and email of the customers and the product_id and quantity of their orders, you can use an inner join, which returns only the rows that match in both tables. The syntax is:


SELECT c.name, c.email, o.product_id, o.quantity FROM customers c INNER JOIN orders o ON c.id = o.customer_id


Advanced Features and Functions




In this section, we will show you some of the advanced features and functions that you can use in Sybase ASE. We will cover how to use stored procedures and triggers, how to use indexes and views, how to use transactions and locking, and how to use backup and restore.


How to use stored procedures and triggers?




A stored procedure is a set of SQL statements that can be stored in the database and executed as a single unit. A stored procedure can accept parameters, return values, and perform logic and calculations. A stored procedure can improve performance, security, and maintainability of your database applications.


To create a stored procedure in Sybase ASE, you need to use the CREATE PROCEDURE command. The syntax is:


CREATE PROCEDURE procedure_name [(parameter_name data_type [OUTPUT], ...)] [WITH EXECUTE AS OWNER ] AS SQL_statement [RETURN return_value]


The parameters are:



  • procedure_name: The name of the stored procedure that you want to create.



  • parameter_name: Optional. The name of the parameter that you want to pass to the stored procedure.



  • data_type: The data type of the parameter that you want to pass to the stored procedure.



  • OUTPUT: Optional. Specifies that the parameter is an output parameter that can return a value from the stored procedure.



  • WITH EXECUTE AS USER user_name: Optional. Specifies some options for the stored procedure, such as whether to recompile it every time it is executed (RECOMPILE), whether to encrypt it in the database (ENCRYPTION), or under which user context it is executed (EXECUTE AS).



  • SQL_statement: The SQL statement or statements that you want to execute in the stored procedure.



  • RETURN return_value: Optional. Specifies a return value for the stored procedure.



For example, to create a stored procedure named get_customer_info that accepts a customer id as an input parameter and returns the name and email of the customer as output parameters, you can use this command:


CREATE PROCEDURE get_customer_info (@id INT, @name VARCHAR(50) OUTPUT, @email VARCHAR(50) OUTPUT) AS SELECT @name = name, @email = email FROM customers WHERE id = @id RETURN 0


To execute a stored procedure in Sybase ASE, you need to use the EXEC or EXECUTE command. The syntax is:


EXEC [UTE] procedure_name [parameter_value @parameter_name = parameter_value] [, ...]


The parameters are:



  • procedure_name: The name of the stored procedure that you want to execute.



  • parameter_value: The value of the parameter that you want to pass to the stored procedure.



  • @parameter_name: The name of the parameter that you want to pass to the stored procedure.



For example, to execute the stored procedure named get_customer_info with an input parameter of 1 and store the output parameters in two variables named @name and @email, you can use this command:


DECLARE @name VARCHAR(50), @emai


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